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Selasa, 5 Julai 2011

GROUP ASSIGNMENT 30.06.2011 until 14.07.2011

Effects of Land Development to the Environment
Land conversion from forest to agriculture has resulted in widespread deforestation. Apart from reducing the amount of the original forests and forest biodiversity and wildlife, deforestation also contributes to soil erosion, sedimentation, damage to slopes and landslide in Malaysia
Continuing deforestation and deforestation in the catchment area will affect the water supply and quality of water resources, affect the ability of the ground water intake and cause more flooding in lowland areas.
Agricultural development support U.S. $ 30 billion in sales of pesticides each year worldwide. Approximately 40% of the total spent in developing countries to toxic compounds such as DDT, and organochlorine orgonofosfat.
According to Repetto and Baliga (1996), Malaysia is one of the most extensive use of pesticides most extensively in Asia. The amount of pesticides used per hectare of crops for 1992, reported 9.2 kg / ha which is nearly ten times the amount used in Thailand for the same period.
In addition to problems of water pollution due to intensive use, the people who use spray and machine operators spray the pesticide will be at risk due to exposure through the skin, particularly when using equipment that is perfect for mixing or spraying pesticides.

Economic wealth can be achieved from the development of the mining industry to reduce damage to the environment, not more than other forms of development. Many mining operations conduct environmental impact assessment.
A related mineral policy has been drafted to take account of environmental factors through the use of performance bonds and other physical measures. However, small scale mining and quarrying operations should be repaired immediately to the management of their environment.
Research shows that small-scale gold mine may interfere with the natural permanent water sources, causing severe sedimentation problems in downstream operations and result in acid mine drainage. In addition, sand mining operations in the plains as well as land reclamation and other development along the coast of the threat to marine ecology. Particularly coral reefs, mangroves and sea grasses along the shore of the fisheries resources.
Development of municipal and industrial development directly led to major changes to natural ecosystems compared with forest development, mining or agriculture.
Environmental issues related to urbanization and industrial development, is more complex and often more difficult to handle, This includes waste and sewerage, conservation of green areas in the municipality, an issue with the municipal heat and air and water pollution.

Sewerage and waste services have been privatized in Malaysia to improve its management. However, there are still concerns regarding the environmental impact of this facility. These include the possibility of groundwater contamination at the site the old municipal garbage to the surface which does not fit as well as river water pollution due to discharge of sewage from the settlements and sewage treatment facilities are inadequate.
The absence of a policy of mandatory recycling and lack of incentives to encourage the recycling of municipal undermine efforts to reduce waste. As a result some garbage in the open area will increase rapidly and the risk of water pollution and groundwater maybe will also increase.
Removal of the industry has made the problem of toxic and dangerous waste worse. This problem and its affecting human health is identified since the early 1990s. These problems include pollution of heavy metals, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, petroleum hydrocarbons, particulate substance, polychlorinated, biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide and arsenic.
Pollution of soil and groundwater due to industrial development should be described and classified in a more systematic in Malaysia. In an effort to provide control of dangerous and toxic waste that is effective, the industry should be required to keep records of the type and amount of waste produced by them and the date and how it is disposed. Because waste disposal is a high cost, requires special facilities and contractors, and subcontractors, they should be careful because the incentives to cheat so much.

Temperatures are generally higher in urban areas because the heat generated by the housing, transport and industry and thermal from buildings and roads. The temperature at night at the junction of Jalan Ampang, Jalan Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur were found to increase about 4 degrees F between 1972 and 1980 due to the increased amount of traffic.
 The temperature at night is also changed in the 3-4 degree will be recorded in residential areas. The old residential area with more green areas and tree growth is more moderate temperatures compared to new housing areas. Since the extinction of the green areas in the city must be stopped immediately.
Current requirements under the Town and Country Planning Act 1970 (Revised 1995) to retain all trees with a circumference exceeding 80 cm in any projects under development may contribute to the small state of conservation of urban green areas and control the temperature in urban areas.
Air pollution in urban areas is one example of Malaysia where it has exceeded a critical level and thus affect the potential for environmental self-cleaning. The main sources of air pollution in the Klang Valley is the motor that contributes to the carbon particles (PM-10). Other sources include industrial waste and construction activities (DOE, 1993)
Municipal also influence the level of total suspended particles (TSP) in air (DOE, 1993). Apart from transboundary sources within a certain period each year, the main source of TSP is open burning of residential and agricultural development. Air pollution in the Klang Valley will not be improved unless the control measures implemented immediately.

Poor Land Use Issues Raised

  Categories of land law in Malaysia, as reported in the Report of the Land Capability Classification (Lee and Panton, 1971), including state land, the Land Awarded Title to Agriculture, Land Approved For Mining, Malay Reserve Land, Reserves To Animal Reserve, Orang Asli Reserve, Forest Reserve, Wildlife and Land Given Mlik / Gazetted for public facilities and other purposes.
The last category refers to land for urban development, the grave, police and military reserves, airports and other reserves of the government but does not include water catchment reserves.
Land Development in Malaysia include the development of new areas for agriculture, forestry and land conversion for industrial growth and urbanization. Increasing diversity of land use conflicts in relation to development goals. The rapid development has made the land a competition in Malaysia. It also led to poor land use practices in certain circumstances.

Poor land use practices can lead to serious problems and face barriers to development in the long run. Problems that may arise including the destruction of the remains on the ability of land to provide environmental and economic benefits, inefficient use of available natural resources and the accumulation of negative effects. In terms of area, agriculture will be one of the most extensive land development in Malaysia.
Modern agricultural techniques and practices, supported by the use of machinery and input large amounts of energy from fossil fuels has made agriculture more productive in the country but have an impact on the environment. Conversion of land from forest to agriculture has resulted in widespread deforestation, reducing the number and diversity of forests and forest wildlife biology.
In addition,
opening new areas for agriculture has resulted in dwindling mineral resources in this area. despite the fact that most land has been reduced to agricultural development, most fertile soil is not used for food production, but used for other purposes such as housing, recreation and industrial area.
In addition, coastal and inland fishing is not so successful in the competition for land development which in turn undermine local food production. Efforts to promote food production and promote food-based industries should be strengthened in an effort to provide food security for the country.
Country's food import costs about RM8 billion reported a year and contributed to the current account deficit (NST, 1997). Given the current economic slowdown and currency crisis, the matter should be dealt with immediately.
Due to the increasing population in urban areas, increasing infrastructure development to the problem area and less appropriate. This area is often exposed to floods, river erosion, landslides and sedimentation, unless proper control measures are taken.
In some cases, control measures were not taken and the best way for the safety of the population is this area not be developed for housing but used for other purposes such as parks, nature reserves and recreation areas.
In 1996 there were 100 floods, 20 landslides, eight incidents and seven cases of sediment eroded river banks, reported in the Klang Valley alone. This underscores the need for integrated urban management strengthened to make human settlements safer and more secure.

Environmental Pollution
Disposal of waste materials, uncontrolled can lead to environmental pollution. Pollution is a collection of materials that are not suited to life in our environment. Materials that do not fit are called contaminants.
Most of the pollution is caused by human activities. There are many different types of pollution:
(A) Air pollution
(B) Water pollution
(C) Soil
Air pollution occurs when there are contaminants in the air. Examples of these pollutants are dust,
dust, smoke and poisonous gases.
The table below shows the sources of air pollution and major pollutants produced.
Burning fossil fuels in factories and in motor vehicle engines
Burning rubbish and large-scale forest
Spraying of pesticides and chemicals
The use of chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFCs)

Sulfur dioxide gas, nitrogen dioxide, carbon and dust monoxide
Carbon dioxide gas and dust

Gas and toxic chemicals

CFC gases

1. When we breathe, the contaminated air entering the body and affect our health.
2. Dust and poisonous gases from factories, vehicle exhaust and spraying pesticides
      disease if inhaled.
3. The disease is associated with respiratory and eye diseases.

Shrinkage of the Ozone Layer
1. Ozone layer is a layer that protects us from sun radiation.
2. The emancipation of CFC gases used in spray equipment, air conditioner in the refrigerator thin ozone layer.
3. This results in more sunlight reaching the earth.
4. Exposure to sunshine can cause skin cancer.

Formation of Acid Rain
1. The emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide combined with rainwater to form acid rain.
2. Acid rain can kill plants and fish.
3. It also eroded the clothing, paper and building materials.

The increase in temperature in the Earth
1. Carbon dioxide is too much in the air will trap heat.
So increasing the temperature of the earth warms and our environment.
3. This will cause flooding due to melting polar ice on earth, and drought in some parts of the world.

1. Source of water supply comes from rivers, seas, ponds and lakes.
2. Water can be contaminated by
        (A) the waste disposal plant
        (B) oil spills from ships
        (C) the removal of rubbish and excrement
        (D) soil erosion caused by logging and rampant construction.


Affecting Health
1. Waste-sisakilang being dumped into the river water poisoned.
2. This is harmful to our health if the water used for drinking or bathing.
3. Garbage and excrement being dumped into the river is the growth of bacteria that cause disease.

Water Life Killer
1. The oil spilled into the sea to prevent entry of air into the seawater.
2. So plants and animals that live in the sea could not breathe and will die.
3. River water containing waste water plant also poison wildlife.
4. Accumulated debris and mud deposited in the water due to soil erosion to prevent the entrance
      sunlight into the water.
5. This affects the growth of water plants.

Natural Beauty Worsen
1. The beaches are filled with garbage is not looking.
2. The river and the sea smell

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